Topics in Crop Genetics

Controlled Hybridization: Self-incompatibility, Male-sterility, and Sex-inheritance

Controlled Hybridization: Self-incompatibility,Male-sterility and Sex-inheritance
Introduction
Self-incompatibility
Genetic-based Self-incompatibility
Gametophytic Self-incompatibility
Sporophytic Self-incompatibility
Self-incompatibility Systems
Techniques to Overcome Self-incompatibility
Tifhi
Male Sterility
Definition
Genetic-based Male sterility
Uses of Genetic Male Sterility
Genetics of Male Sterility Interactive
Study Question 1
Cytoplasmic Male-sterility
Female Line
Sorghum Example
Try This: Cytoplasmic Male Sterility
Engineered Genetic Male Sterility
Discussion for Further Thought
Chemically-induced Genetic Male Sterility
Sex Inheritance
Description
Genetics of Sex Inheritance
Application and Challenges
Cucumber
Asparagus
Controlling Hybridization
Reflection for Further Thought
References
For Your Information
Homozygous Flowers
Uses of Self-incompatibility Genes
Viable Pollen Measurement
System: Linking herbicide-resistant gene to the male sterility gene
Hybrid Wheat
Sex Inheritance Systems
About This Module

Inheritance of Quantitative Traits

Inheritance of Quantitative Traits
Introduction
Introduction
Key Concepts
Objectives
Heritable vs. Environmental Variation
Heritable vs. Environmental Variation
GxE Interaction Example
Conclusions
Significance Illustration
Characteristics of Quantitative Traits
Characteristics of Quantitative Traits
Inheritance of Quantitative Traits
Inheritance of Quantitative Traits
Characteristics Indicative of Quantitative Inheritance (1)
Characteristics Indicative of Quantitative Inheritance (2)
Characteristics Indicative of Quantitative Inheritance (3)
Measurement of Continuous Variation
Measurement of Continuous Variation
QTLs and Mapping
Multiple Genes and Gene Action
Multiple Genes and Gene Action (1)
Multiple Genes and Gene Action (2)
Heritability
Conceptual Basis
Family Resemblance
Statistical Basis
Uses of Heritability Estimates
Characters
Broad-Sense Heritability
Narrow-Sense Heritability
Estimation using Parent-Offspring Regression
Alternative Formula
Regression Coefficient
Types of Progeny
Heritability Influences
Genetic Advance from Selection
Evolution
Realized Heritability
Adaptive Value
Types of Selection
Genetic Advance from Selection
Expected Gain From Selection
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Genotypic Value
Performance
Degrees of Dominance
Similar Statistical Symbols
Several Environments
Analytical Tools
Analytical Tools
Statistical Terms
Threshold Traits
Several Environments
Selection Intensity Table
Genotypic and Breeding Values
Inheritance of Quantitative Traits

Flower Morphology and Distribution

Flower Morphology and Distribution
Sexual Reproduction
Kinds of Flowers
Flower Dissection
Complete Soybean Flower Dissection
Wheat Spike Dissection
Grass Floret
Study Question 4
Study Question 5
Perfect and Imperfect
Descriptions
Study Question 6
Pollination and Fertilization
Pollination and Fertilization
Pollination
Self-Pollination
Cross-Pollination
Classification
Study Question 7
Study Question 8
Asexual Reproduction
Types
Vegetative Propagation
Tissue Culture
Apomixis Process
Study Question 9
Discussion
Study Question 10
Reflection
References
Flower Morphology and Distribution

Gene Segregation and Genetic Recombination

Gene Segregation and Genetic Recombination
Introduction
Overview of Genetics
The Science of Genetics
Genetic Subdisciplines
Gene Structure
Genes and Chromosomes
Molecular Basis of Chromosomes
DNA
Genes
Alleles
Terms and Definitions
Gene Expression, Translation, and Transcription
DNA, Protein, and Other Gene Products
DNA Structure
Nucleotides
Gene Expression, RNA, Translation, and Transcription
Basic Steps of Transcription
Inheritance and Gene Action
Mechanisms
Gene Action
Study Questions 1
Deviations from Expected Phenotypes
Multiple Alleles
Incomplete Penetrance
Study Questions 2
Mendelian Heredity
Mendelian Heredity
Crosses
Predicting Segregation Ratios
Punnett Square Examples
Branching or Forked-Line Method
Rules of Probability
Mendel's Principles
Inheritance
Try This! - Trait Graphs
Progeny Ratios
Try This! - Crossing
Successive Generations
Progeny Test
Testcross
Study Questions 3
Determine Linkage
Genetic Recombination and Its Effects
Develop Improved Cultivars
Segregation
Recombination
Recombination Exercise
Study Questions 4
Helpful Hint
Restrictions with Independent Assortment
Hybrid Characteristics
Genetic Cross Data
Gene Interactions
Traits
Duplicate Recessive Epistasis
Dominant Epistasis
Duplicate Dominant Epistasis
Epistasis Identification
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Cytoplasmic DNA
Homozygosity and Heterozygosity
Eukaryotes
F and S Symbolism
About This Module

Inbreeding and Heterosis

Inbreeding and Heterosis
Introduction
Inbreeding
Inbreeding Depression
Cross-Pollination
Self-Pollination
Objectives
Genetics of Inbreeding
Inbreeding as a Probability
Measurement of Inbreeding
Second Generation
Generation Inbreeding
Genotype Frequencies
Inbreeding Coefficient
Inbreeding via Self-Pollination
Proportion of Homozygotes
Study Questions 1
Consequences of Inbreeding
Increasing Inbreeding
Outbreeders vs. Inbreeders
Inbreeding Depression
Inbreeding Depression and Homozygosity
Overdominance Hypothesis
Mating Systems
Study Questions 2A & 2B
Study Questions 2C
Study Questions 3
Degree of Relatedness of Individuals
Heterosis
Heterosis or Hybrid Vigor
Dominance vs. Overdominance Hypothesis
Dominance Hypothesis
Main Genetic Hypothesis
Heterozygote Advantage
Genetics of Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression
Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression
Overdominance Theory
Genetic Analysis
Reflection
References
Effective Population Size
Inbreeding and Heterosis

Linkage

Linkage
Introduction
Crossover and Recombination
Genetic Organization
Crossing-Over
Genetic Distance
Recombination
Linkage Detection
Linkage Phase
Coupling and Repulsion
Using Testcrosses
Testcross Gametes
Chi-Square Test
Chi-Square Results
Genetic Distance
Study Question 1
Study Question 2
Three-Point Analysis
Purpose
Frequency Chart
Gene Order
Double Crossovers
Observing Double Crossovers
Phase Analysis
Coefficient of Coincidence and Interference
Map Functions
Measurement Units
Frequency Conversion
Visual Relationship
Other Types of Maps
Other Types of Maps
Cytogenic Map
Factors Influencing Linkage Mapping
Consequences and Applications of Linkage
Linkage Disequilibrium
Genotype Distribution
Equilibrium
LD and Mapping
Dissipation
Recombination and LD
Genetic Markers
Genetic Markers
Three Types
Morphological Markers
Biological Markers
Molecular Markers
For Your Information
FYI: Molecular Markers
Polymorphism
Types of Biochemical/Molecular Markers
Widely-Used Markers
SSR and SNP Markers
Uses of Molecular Markers
Reflection
References
Linkage

Mutations and Variation

Mutations and Variation
Introduction
Mutations
Genetic Resources
Objectives
Mutations as Heritable Change
Types of Mutations
Classification of Mutations
Spontaneous vs. Induced Mutations
Mutation Rates
Somatic vs. Germinal Mutations
Effects of Mutation on Fitness or Function
Point vs. Chromosomal Mutations
Point Mutation
Point or Gene Mutation
Missense Mutations
Frameshift Mutation
Chromosomal Mutation
Chromosomal Mutation
Transpositions
Discussion
Sources of Variation
Sources of Genetic Variability
Gene Pools
Gene Pool Concept
Genetic Engineering
Plant Transformation
Requirements for Gene Transfer
Construct and Carrier
Introduce the DNA
Bt Gene: Vector Constructs
Bt Gene: Transformation
Bt Gene: Selection
Bt Gene: Insect Resistance Evaluation
Bt Gene: Insect Resistance Data Analysis
Advantages and Disadvantages
Insertion is Random
Dominant, Single-gene Inheritance
Proper Expression
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Nucleotides
Amino Acids and Proteins
Table of Codons
Mutations and Variation

Ploidy: Polyploidy, Aneuploidy, Haploidy

Ploidy—Polyploidy, Anueploidy, Haploidy
Introduction
Concepts for Polyploidy
Ploidy
Polyploid
Try This! - Polyploidy
Types of Polyploidy
Euploidy
Autoploidy
Alloploidy
Autoploids and Alloploids
Diploidization
Aneuploidy
Try This: Polyploids
Try This: Aneuploids
Induction of Polypoids, Aneuploids, and Haploids
Natural Induction of Polyploids
Artificial Induction of Polyploids
Induction of Aneuploids
Triticale
Mitosis and Meiosis
Induction of Haploids
Genetics of Polyploidy
Genetic Concepts
Valency
Chromosomes
Study Questions 1
Number of Dominant Alleles
Number of Different Alleles
Study Questions
Genotypes Exercise
Autoploid Genetics
Autotetraploid Genetics
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
General Tissue Culture Procedures
Types of Tissue Culture
Embryo Culture
Study Questions 2
Uses of Polyploidy, Aneuploidy, and Haploidy
Triticale
Wheat
Brassica Evolution—Triangle of U
Discussion
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Types of Aneuploids
Colchicine
Ploidy—Polyploidy, Aneuploidy, Haploidy

Population Genetics

Population Genetics
Introduction
Introduction
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
Fields of Genetics
Reference Population
Goals
Description
Discussion
Allele and Genotypic Frequencies
Model
Equations
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Concept of Genetic Equilibrium
Assumptions
Frequencies
Study Question 1
Study Question 2
Study Question 2 Explanation
Factors Affecting Equilibrium
Random-Mating Interference
Scenarios
Genetics of Cross-Pollinated Species
Genetics of Self-Pollinated Species
Allelic Effects
Gene Action
Gene Interactions
Study Question 3
Proof
Proof
Forces Affecting Population Structures
Descriptions
Study Question 4
Forces Affecting Allele Frequency
Factor Categories
Migration
Migration
Study Question 5
Mutation
Fate of a Single Mutation
Recurrent Mutations
Selection
Frequency Equations
Discussion
Small Population Size
Examples
Random Genetic Drift
Rate of Change
Inbreeding and Small Populations
Identical Types
Study Question 6
Summary of Factors
Schematic Overview
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Frequency of Homozygotes
Mating Systems for Crop Species
Homozygosity and Heterozygosity
Population Genetics

Reproduction in Crop Plants

Reproduction in Crop Plants
Introduction
Hereditary Mechanisms
Heredity, Genotypes, and Phenotypes
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) And Chromosomes
Chromosomes And Genomes
Crop Chromosome Number
Mitosis and Meiosis
Introduction
Mitosis
Meiosis
Review
Study Question 1
Study Question 2
Sexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Synopsis of the Life Cycle of the Angiosperm Plant
Male Spore Formation
Female Spore and Gamete Formation
Double Fertilization
Study Question 3
Reflection
References
For Your Information
Endomitosis
Nuclear vs. Organellar DNA
Cell Cycle
Microsporogenesis
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Reproduction in Crop Plants