Topics in Crop Improvement

Basic Principles of Plant Breeding

Basic Principles of Plant Breeding
Introduction
Objectives
Production Challenges for African Crops
Systems of Reproduction in Crops
Asexual Reproduction
Genetic Information Transfer
Plant Reproductive Systems
Allogamous Mating System
Protandry/Protogyny
Understanding Reproductive Systems
Breeding Populations and Cultivar Types
Populations
Cultivars
Clonal Cultivars
Synthetic Cultivars
Cultivar Development Example
Pure-Line Cultivars
Cultivar Examples
UPOV Excerpt
Assignment
Setting Breeding Objectives
References
Basic Principles of Plant Breeding

Groundnut Breeding

Sexual Reproduction (Self- and Cross-Fertilization)
Autogamous Mating System
Hybrid Cultivars
Seed Law
Definition of a Cultivar According to UPOV
Introduction
Pedigree Method
Pedigree Method
Marker-Assisted Recurrent Selection
Recurrent Half-Sib (Testcross Progeny)
Maize OPV
Introduction
Domestication and Diversity
Ancestral Origins
Bean Gene Pool
Different Races
Biology of the Crop
General Characteristics
Growth Stages
Photosynthesis
General Classification System of Beans
Utilization or Mode of Consumption
Growth Habit
Duration of Growth Period
Adaption, Economic Importance and Uses
Adaption
Human Diet and Nutrition
Atmospheric Nitrogen
Production Constraints
Biotic Constraints
Abiotic Constraints
International Breeding Centers
Examples of Clonal Cultivars
Supporting Broad Goals
Breeding Methods
Improving Seed Yield
General Steps
Breeding Pyramid
References
Groundnut Breeding
Deliberate Choice
Recreating Primitive Maize
Making Progress
Definition
Examples
Table 1
Transgenic Approaches to Increase Genetic Diversity
Types of Crosses
Three-Way, Double, Diallel Crosses
Back Cross
Legal Considerations
Groundnut Breeding
Objectives
Crop Attributes
Crop Biology
Crop Geography
Crop Inflorescence
Subspecific and Varietal Classification
Importance
Usage
Biotic Constraints
Disease Constraints
Pest Constraints
Resistance Traits
Resistance in Arachis Species
Resistance in Arachis Species
Resistance in Arachis Species
Resistance in Arachis Species
Resistance in Arachis Species
Resistance in Arachis Species
Breeding Properties
Breeding Goals
Breeding Centers
Germplasm Pools
Introgressing Diversity
Introgressing Diversity II
Introgressing Diversity III
Summary
Outcomes
Limitations
Breeding Strategies
Speed Breeding
Calendar
Breeding Example
Registration of 'Bailey' Peanut
Extra Questions
References
Groundnut Breeding
Variety Performance Testing
Introduction
Apomixis
Crossing Block
Plot Considerations
Generation Trials
Final Stages
Synthetic Cultivars
Assembly of Parental Lines
Groundnut Breeding
Breeding Goals
Yield and Acreage Over Time
Characteristics of Clonally Propagated Crops
Case Study
Polycross Nursery vs. Controlled Crosses
CIP's Convergent-Divergent Scheme
Creating Distinct Germplasm Pools
Crossing Scheme and Heterosis Values
Choosing Parents

Breeding Methods

Breeding Methods
Methods Used in Self-Pollinated Crops
Methods Used in Cross-Pollinated Crops
Methods Used in Clonal Crops
Breeding Methods Used in Major Crops
Pedigree Method
Pedigree Method
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
Bulk Method
Single-Seed Descent Method
Single-Seed Descent Method
Single-Seed Descent Method
Doubled Haploid Method
Backcross Breeding Method
Reliability for Selection
Steps
Early Generation Testing
CMS Systems
Hybrid Cultivars
Purpose
Comparisons
Examples
Phenotypic Recurrent Selection Issues
Development of Base Population
Evaluation of Individuals
Population Improvement
Recurrent Phenotypic Selection
Recurrent Half-Sib Selection
Recurrent Half-Sib Example
Recurrent Half-Sib Example
Recurrent Full-Sib Process
Recurrent Full-Sib Example
Recurrent Selection Among Selfed Families
Reciprocal Recurrent Selection
Development of a Maize OPV
Maize OPV Cultivar Evaluation
OPV Advantages and Disadvantages
Clonal Cultivar Methods
Synthetic Cultivar
Recommended Readings
References
Breeding Methods

Cassava Breeding

Introduction
Cassava Anatomy
Cassava Production
Reproductive Biology of Cassava
Propagation Methods
Origin of Cassava and Genetic Diversity
Breeding Objectives
Principles of Cassava Cultivar Development: an Overview
Cassava Hybridization Techniques
Breeding Scheme
Farmer Participatory Trial
Germplasm Conservation Centers and Practice
Cassava Genetics
Application of Biotechnology in Cassava
References
Cassava Breeding

Common Bean Breeding

Common Bean Breeding

Cowpea Breeding

Cowpea Breeding
Introduction
Biology of the Crop
General Characteristics
Photosynthesis, Photoperiod and Temperature
General Classification
Utilization or Mode of Consumption
Seed Characteristics
Growth Habit
Adaptation and Economic Importance and Uses
Adaptation
Human Diet and Nutrition
Cropping System
Production Constraints
International Breeding Centers
Breeding Methods and Strategies
Introduction
Example of Cultivar Development
Cultivar Flow Chart
Year - 1989
Year - 1990
Year - 1991
Year - 1992
Year - 1992 Part 2
Year - 1993
Year - 1993 Part 2
Year - 1993 Part 3
Year - 1994
Year - 1994 Part 2
Year - 1995
Year - 1995 Part 2
Year - 1996
Year - 1996 Part 2
Year - 1997
1998 - Uniform Blackeye Trials
Year - 1999
Example Using Participatory Varietal Selection
Important Traits
Pathway Based on Preferences
Notes to Consider
Marker Assisted Selection
References
References (2)
References (3)
Cowpea Breeding

Genetic Variation and Germplasm Usage

Genetic Variation and Germplasm Usage
Introduction
Relationship of Plant Breeding to Natural Selection
Creating Genetic Variability
Rearranging Genetic Variability
Product Maintenance
Successful Maize Experiment
Protein Content
Overview of the Plant Breeding Process
Flow Chart
Cultivar Development Strategies
Setting Breeding Objectives
Identifying Parents
Gene Banks: Role, Procedures, Acquisition, and Stewardship
Roles of Gene Banks
GRIN
Type of Variability and Sources of Genetic Material
Natural Variability
Primary Gene Pool
Secondary and Tertiary Gene Pools
Hybridization
Artificially Created Variability: Mutation and Transgenes
Induced Mutation to Augment Genetic Diversity
Mutation Breeding
Approaches
Procedure
Creating Breeding Populations - Types of Crosses
Material Transfer Agreement (MTA)
MTA Sections
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
SMTA
Farmers' Rights
Importance
References
Genetic Variation and Germplasm Usage

Millet Breeding

Millet Breeding
Objectives
Introduction
Origin and Domestication
History
Global Production
Morphology
Races
Biology of the Plant
Growth and Development
Vegetative Phase
Reproductive Phase
Grain Filling Phase
Adaptation, Economic Importance and Uses
Adaptation, Economic Importance and Uses
Soil Types
Production Constraints
Pearl Millet Breeding
Basics
Male Sterility
Breeding Methods
References
Millet Breeding

Participatory Plant Breeding and Participatory Variety Selection

Participatory Plant Breeding
Participatory Plant Breeding and Participatory Variety Selection

Crop Improvement

Introduction
Objectives
Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB)
PPB Categories
Goals of PPB
Types of Participation
Stages of Participation
Essential Requirements for Success
Major Possible Outcomes
Impacts of PPB
Participatory Variety Selection (PVS)
Participatory Variety Selection
Importance of PVS
Conventional and Participatory Timeline
Impact Pathway
References
Introduction
Current Seed System in Sub-Saharan Africa
Formal Seed System
Informal Seed System
Seed Sector Development
Integrated Seed Supply Systems (Semi-formal Seed Supply System)
Variety Release Regulations
Seed Regulation Systems
Common Features of Regulations
The International Union For The Protection Of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
Plant Breeder's Right
Who Can Apply
Variety Release
Seed Quality and Certification
Seed Production
Seed Classes
Comparing Class Systems
References
Introduction
Importance
Usage
Important Diseases and Pests
Infected by Several Different Viruses
Diseases and Pests in Africa
Breeding Centers in Africa and Elsewhere
Current Status of Sweetpotato in Africa
Constraints on Yield
Breeding Sweetpotato
Breeding Factors
Hexaploid Nature of Sweetpotato
Basic Breeding Scheme
Recurrent Selection
Accelerated Breeding Scheme (ABS)
Population Improvement and Variety Development
G×E Interactions
Accelerated Breeding Scheme
Estimation of Variance Component
Establish a Crossing Block
Seedling Nursery (SN)
Advanced Yield Trial (AT)
Trial Conditions
ABS - Mulitple Concurrent Cycles
Sources of Parents/Germplasm
Polycross Nursery vs. Controlled Crosses
Ensuring Specific Cross Combinations
Using Different Methods
Considering Other Factors
Hybridization Using a Polycross Nursery
Crossing Block/Controlled Crosses
Seed Harvest
Seed Scarification
Cross Incompatibility
Incompatilbility and Sterility
Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB)
Exploiting Heterosis
Root Yield Comparison
Example of Parent Selection
Trial Materials and Parental Dendrograms
Summary of Groups of Clones
Combining Ability of Individual Clones

Pedigree Naming Systems and Symbols

Pedigree Naming Systems and Symbols
Introduction
Using F# and S#
Symbology
Single Gene Example With Two Homozygous Parents
Self-Pollination
Cross-Pollinated Species
Using Fx:y and Sx:y
Breeding Lines
Summary
Writing a Standard Pedigree
Symbology
Example
Backcross Pedigree
Identity Number
Using BCID
Recording Selection History
Example
Location Codes
Examples 2 and 3
Additional Notes
References
Pedigree Naming Systems and Symbols

Refresher on Population and Quantitative Genetics

Refresher on Population and Quantitative Genetics
Introduction
Populations
Basic Principles
Types of Populations in Breeding Program
Single Cross
Three-Way and Double Crosses
Complex Populations
Complex Populations (Cont.)
Diallel Cross
Half-Diallel Cross
Partial Diallel Cross
Polycrosses
Polycross Nursery Harvest Procedures
Qualitative and Quantitative Traits
Qualitative and Quantitative Traits
Types of Gene Action
Genotypic Values at 'B' Locus
Non-Additive Gene Action
Non-Linear Regression
Hypothetical Example
Proportions
Types of Interaction
Concept of Variability
Johanssen Experiment
Mathematical Representations
Phenotype Interactions
Environment
Graphical Representations of GxE Interaction
Crossover Interaction
Practical Considerations of GxE Interaction for Plant Breeders
Selecting a Testing Site
Adaptation Factors
Heritability
Concept
Importance
Methods for Estimating
Example 1
Example 2
Variables
Summary
Selection Theory
Truncation
Equations
Graphical Representation
Response to Selection
Calculations
Additive Genetic Variation
Selection Intensity
Breeder's Equation
Concept of Selection Intensity and Response to Selection Equation
Importance of h-squared
Selection Explanation
Expected Genetic Gain
Practical Considerations
Reducing Effect of Environment
Multiple Trait Selection
Combining Ability
GCA and SCA
Calculations
Example
Diallel Example
Heterosis
References
Refresher on Population and Quantitative Genetics

Rice Breeding

Rice Breeding
Objective
Introduction
Origin
Major Categories
Domestication and Diversity
Wild Ancestor of Rice
Transformation to Cultivated Rice
NERICA
NERICA
Biology of the Crop
General Characteristics of the Development of the Rice Plant
General Characteristics of the Development of the Rice Plant
Development Stages
Seed Development
Vegetative Development
Reproductive Development
Further Characteristics
General Classification of Rice Production Systems
Diversity
Adaptation, Economic Importance and Uses
Rice in the Human Diet and Nutrition
Processing
International Breeding Centers
Breeding Methods
Heterosis
Types of Heterosis
Hybrid Rice
Male Sterility in Rice
Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility
Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility
Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility
Hybrid Rice Production Flowchart
Hybrid Rice Breeding using EGMS
Classification of the EGMS System
Classification of the EGMS System
Two-Line System Production Flowchart
Conventional Rice Breeding Program
References
Rice Breeding

Seed Systems and Certification

Seed Systems and Certification
Seed Systems and Certification

Sorghum Breeding

Sorghum Breeding
Objectives
Origin, Domestication and Diversification
Biology of the Crop
General Characteristics of The Development of the Sorghum Plant
Growth Stages
Photosynthesis, Photoperiod and Temperature
General Classification
Classification by Utilization or Mode of Consumption
Classification of Grain Sorghum by Intended Purpose
Classification of Grain Sorghum by Agronomic Groups
Adaption and Economic Importance and Uses
Adaption
Cropping System
Production Constraints
Biotic Constraints
Abiotic Constraints
International Breeding Center
Collections Diversity
Additional Collections Locations
Breeding Methods and Strategies
Breeding Opportunities and Objectives
Open Pollinated and Pure Line Culitvars Development Methods
Hybrid Cultivar Development (Hybrid Breeding)
References
Sorghum Breeding

Steps in Cultivar Development

Steps in Cultivar Development
Clonal Cultivars
Steps in Development of Asexually Propagated or Clonal Cultivars
Examples of Clonal Cultivars
Clones
Somaclonal Variation
Detection of Specific Pathogens
Steps in Developing Clonal Cultivars
Longer Term Breeding Experience
Root Data
Trait Assessment
Steps in Development of Self-Pollinated Cultivars
Pure Line Cultivars
Clearly Defined Objectives
Making Strategic Decisions
Parents Selection
Appropriate Breeding Method
Selection Considerations
Steps in Development of Synthetic Cultivars
Hybrids and Synthetics
Half-sib Selection
Specific Methods
Steps in Development of Hybrids
Hybrid Cultivars
Cytoplasmic Male Sterility
Practical Considerations
Hybrid Rice Breeding
Three-line System
Two-line System
Hybrid Maize Cultivars
Inbred Lines
Heterotic Groups
Inbred Line Development
Two-parent Cross
Hybrid Commercialization
Requirements
Steps in Development of Multi-line Cultivars
Steps in Development of Blends
References

Sweetpotato Breeding

Sweetpotato Breeding
References
Sweetpotato Breeding